West Nile virus is a serious disease which in most cases are transmitted by mosquitoes. This disease is said to be originated from Africa and spread into Europe, Asia and United States. In recent years there has been many cases reported in both south and north America. In United States alone there last year 5,128 cases showing West Nile virus symptoms in people were reported which include 229 deaths.
West Nile virus is one that is prone to mutation and adaptation. The virus is transmitted primarily by the bite of mosquitoes, a medium-sized brown mosquito known as the common house mosquito. The mosquitoes lay eggs in man-made sources of stagnant water in urban environments, and upon hatching, the adults tend to remain nearby. West Nile virus (WNV) survives in the environment through a transmission cycle that involves mosquitoes feeding on infected birds. The virus spreads to the mosquito’s salivary glands and is transmitted when the mosquito injects its infected saliva into other, uninfected birds. Infected mosquitoes also bite mammals, including humans, and infect them with the virus. Most birds and mammals can be infected with mosquito-borne WNV, but only blue jays, crows, horses, and humans tend to die of the infection. The American robin contributes most to maintaining the transmission cycle because it has several broods per season and hatching are more susceptible to WNV infection than adult birds.
We can reduce the risk of being infected with the deadly West Nile Virus by protecting us from the mosquito bites. The best option is to use mosquito repellents that are effective. Mosquito repellents with DEET provide maximum protection against mosquitoes and it is also not harmful to skin. For small kids use repellents with less concentration, there are mosquito repellents for babies that are specifically made for babies. Also wear long sleeve clothing whenever going out or at a place where there are presence of mosquitoes. Keep your surroundings clean and drain out all standing water to prevent mosquitoes breeding in and around your home.
Coughing, sneezing, itchy and watery eyes. If you recognize these symptoms in your child, he or she may have allergies and fever. Allergies, which affect about twenty-five percent of children, are caused by an overreaction of the immune system. Exposure to what is normally a harmless substance, such as pollen, causes the immune system to react as if the substance was dangerous. It then creates reactions aimed at destroying the allergen, such as sneezing. If the allergen is in the air, the reaction will likely occur in the eyes, nose and lungs. If it is eaten, the mouth, stomach and intestines may be affected. If the allergen is in or on a skin product, the skin suffers. Also check if your kids have temperature, using quality thermometer to know accurate temperature. If your kid is small and does not allows to take temperature reading using ordinary thermometer, use best forehead thermometer that uses infrared technology to measure temperature.
Allergic rhinitis, also called nasal allergies or hay fever, is an inflammation of the nasal passages. It’s usually caused by something in the air, such as pollen, pet dander, mold, and mites. You’ll recognize the symptoms as a runny nose, sneezing, itchy, watery eyes and sometimes a dry cough. Both allergic rhinitis and colds include sneezing, congestion, runny nose, and watery eyes, so it isn’t always easy to tell them apart. However, cold symptoms often appear one at a time: first sneezing, then a runny nose, and then congestion, lasting from seven to 10 days. Allergy symptoms occur all at once, and continue as long as your child is exposed to the allergen. Sneezing, especially several times in a row, is likely to be an allergy.
Laparoscopic surgery is a different approach compared to open surgery. Most of the times procedures and principles are the same. The article is catered towards general practitioners, physicians and most importantly patient themselves who want to know more about laparoscopic surgery. Updated and useful information on laparoscopic surgery at a more local level is very useful and rewarding for doctors and patients alike. With the recent advancement made in medical field, there has been new development in laparoscopic surgeries. Nowadays various complex operations like colon surgery, hernia repair and cholecystectomy are performed laparoscopically. In case of laparoscopic surgery small holes or incisions are made in the patients abdomen and tiny plastic tubes called ports are inserted through this holes. Cameras and other medical instruments are then introduced through them. The camera then transfer internal images of the patient on monitor screen allowing surgeon to operate.
In India, laparoscopic surgeries are still at initial state, but are getting popular day by day. In cities like Mumbai, there are many good laparoscopic surgeons who have successfully performed many complex surgeries laparoscopically. More and more hospitals are now introducing this type of surgeries as the demand from the patients keep on increasing. f you are about to undergo laparoscopic surgery, it is important that you do a little research and learn about this surgical procedures first. So that you don’t need to worry about the entire procedure if you have prior knowledge about how laparoscopic surgeries are performed as well as various benefits of it.
Benefits of Laparoscopic surgery
Laparoscopic surgery has many benefits over open surgery and hence it is more popular among patients. The foremost benefit is, in laparoscopy small incisions are made. This allows much fast recovery and shorter hospital stays. In most cases, patients are allowed to go back to their home on the very next day. Since smaller holes are made all throughout their operation, patients also experience less internal scarring and less pain than open surgery operations usually cause. Most patient who choose laparoscopic surgery are happy about much smaller scars. Unlike traditional surgeries, laparoscopic surgery does not require big incisions in order to perform a successful surgical operation.
What is this condition?
Pulmonary hypertension occurs when pulmonary artery pressure rises above normal, but is not caused by aging or altitude. Primary (idiopathic) pulmonary hypertension is rare, occurring most often in women between ages 20 and 40; pregnant women have the highest mortality. Secondary pulmonary hypertension is caused by existing cardiac or pulmonary disease. The prognosis depends on the severity of the underlying disorder.
What causes it?
Pulmonary hypertension Casues include altered immune mechanisms. Secondary pulmonary hypertension is caused by oxygen deprivation from an underlying disease.
What are its symptoms?
Most people complain of increasing shortness of breath on exertion, weakness, dizziness, and fatigue. Many also show signs of right-sided heart failure, including peripheral edema, ascites, neck vein distention, and liver enlargement. Other clinical effects vary according to the underlying disorder.
How is it diagnosed?
Diagnostic tests for pulmonary hypertension include the following:
- listening to the lungs through a stethoscope
- arterial blood gas analysis
- cardiac catheterization
- pulmonary angiography
- pulmonary function tests.
How is it treated?
Treatment usually includes oxygen therapy. For people with right ventricular failure, treatment also includes fluid restriction, digitalis glycosides to increase cardiac output, and diuretics to decrease intravascular volume and extravascular fluid accumulation. Of course, an important goal of treatment is correction of the underlying cause.
What can a person with pulmonary hypertension do?
- Avoid overexertion, and always rest between activities.
- Be sure to follow the prescribed diet and medication schedule.
Cardiovascular disease includes a group of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease the leading cause of death in the united states accounts for 42% of all deaths. About 25% of Americans (approximately 59 million people) have one or more forms of heart or blood vessel disease. Approximately 1.5 million heart attacks have occurred every year in the last few years, and more than 500,000 of these resulted in death each year. A total of 300,000, or 60%, of these deaths occurred before the victim reached a hospital emergency room.
However, a significant number of these premature deaths could have been prevented with early treatment.Of heart attack victims, 50% wait an average of 2 hours before seeking medical attention. Denying the possibility that a heart attack is occurring is the primary reason for the delay.
The symptoms of a heart attack are similar to those of other physical ailments, and people are more prone to believe that it is one of the other problems rather than a heart attack.Although the figures are foreboding, substantial progress has occurred during the last 40 years. The death rate for cardiovascular diseases has declined by approximately 51 % since 1950. Although an impressive accomplishment, it is somewhat diminished by the fact that cardiovascular diseases remain by far the leading cause of death in the united states.
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